In the realm of enterprise-scale software development, the Scaled Agile Framework (SAFe) stands out as a comprehensive methodology designed to facilitate Agile adoption across large organizations. At the heart of SAFe’s effectiveness is its ability to manage and coordinate multiple Agile Release Trains (ARTs) and teams, ensuring that even the most complex projects progress smoothly towards their objectives. However, navigating the intricacies of dependencies and deliveries across these ARTs and teams presents a formidable challenge, one that can significantly impact the overall success of the Agile initiative.

Dependencies in SAFe, whether they are feature-based, technical, or resource-related, can create bottlenecks that delay progress and compromise project timelines. Similarly, ensuring timely deliveries across different ARTs and teams requires a well-oiled coordination mechanism that aligns with the overarching goals of the organization. The complexity of these challenges necessitates a strategic approach to management, one that leverages SAFe principles, practices, and tools to foster seamless collaboration and integration.

This article aims to demystify the process of managing dependencies and coordinating deliveries within the SAFe environment. By exploring strategies for visualization and mapping, enhancing cross-team communication, and leveraging SAFe’s planning and integration tools, we’ll provide you with actionable insights to navigate these complexities effectively. Through real-world case studies and expert recommendations, we’ll illustrate how organizations can overcome these challenges, ensuring that their Agile Release Trains run smoothly and deliver value consistently.

As we delve into the nuances of managing dependencies and ensuring timely deliveries in SAFe, remember that the goal is not just to manage but to master these complexities, turning potential obstacles into opportunities for enhanced collaboration, innovation, and project success.

Understanding Dependencies in SAFe

Grasping the concept of dependencies in the Scaled Agile Framework (SAFe) is crucial for effectively managing and coordinating work across Agile Release Trains (ARTs) and teams. Dependencies, in the SAFe context, refer to the interconnections between tasks, features, or resources that necessitate a certain sequence of execution or allocation to achieve project objectives. These interdependencies can significantly influence project timelines, quality, and team dynamics, making their management a pivotal aspect of Agile planning and execution.

Types of Dependencies in SAFe

  • Feature Dependencies: Occur when a feature or user story in one team’s backlog cannot be completed until another team completes a related feature or task.
  • Technical Dependencies: Arise from the technical architecture or design, where certain technical components or services must be developed in a specific order.
  • Resource Dependencies: Involve shared resources, such as specialized personnel or equipment, needed by multiple teams or ARTs simultaneously.

Impact of Poorly Managed Dependencies

The ramifications of not adequately managing dependencies within SAFe are far-reaching, including:

  • Delayed Deliveries: Dependencies can lead to bottlenecks, causing delays in feature development and delivery.
  • Compromised Quality: Rushing to meet deadlines due to dependency-related delays can compromise the quality of the work.
  • Team Frustration: Teams may become demotivated and frustrated if dependencies frequently obstruct their progress or if they are consistently waiting on other teams to complete work.

Strategies for Managing Dependencies

Successfully navigating dependencies in SAFe requires a proactive and strategic approach:

  • Early Identification: Utilize PI Planning sessions to identify potential dependencies between teams and ARTs early in the planning process.
  • Visualization and Mapping: Create dependency maps or use program boards to visualize and track dependencies throughout the PI, making it easier to anticipate and address potential issues.
  • Prioritization and Resolution: Prioritize dependencies based on their impact on the delivery timeline and work collaboratively across teams to develop solutions or workarounds.

Understanding the types of dependencies and their potential impacts is the first step in mitigating risks and ensuring smooth execution within the SAFe framework. By adopting a systematic approach to identifying, visualizing, and resolving dependencies, organizations can enhance coordination across ARTs and teams, leading to more efficient and effective Agile delivery.

Strategies for Managing Dependencies

Effectively managing dependencies is crucial for minimizing delays and ensuring smooth workflows across Agile Release Trains (ARTs) and teams within the Scaled Agile Framework (SAFe). Here are some strategic approaches and best practices for managing dependencies more effectively:

Visualization and Mapping

  • Program Boards: Utilize program boards to visually map out dependencies across ARTs and teams. This tool highlights the relationships between different features or stories and can identify potential bottlenecks early in the PI planning process.
  • Dependency Structure Matrix (DSM): A DSM is a tool used to represent and analyze dependencies among various components within a project. It helps in identifying and managing complex dependencies by providing a visual representation of their interconnections.

Cross-Team Communication

  • Scrum of Scrums: Implement a Scrum of Scrums or ART Sync meetings to facilitate communication between different teams. These meetings provide a platform for discussing dependencies, progress, and impediments, ensuring alignment and collaboration across teams.
  • Integration Roles: Assign integration roles, such as Release Train Engineers (RTEs) or Solution Train Engineers (STEs), who are responsible for overseeing and facilitating the resolution of cross-team dependencies.

PI Planning

  • Early Identification: Encourage teams to identify and discuss potential dependencies during the PI Planning sessions. Early identification allows for proactive planning and finding solutions before the dependencies become blockers.
  • Breakout Sessions: Conduct breakout sessions during PI Planning for teams to negotiate dependencies, discuss details, and agree on timelines for critical interdependent tasks.

Adjusting for Changes and Risks

  • Risk Management: Incorporate dependency risks into the team and program risk management plans. Regularly review and adjust plans based on the evolving risk landscape associated with dependencies.
  • Flexibility in Execution: Maintain flexibility in sprint and PI plans to accommodate changes in dependencies. Agile teams should be prepared to pivot or reprioritize work based on the resolution of dependencies and emerging challenges.

Leveraging SAFe Tools and Artifacts

  • Solution Train: For organizations operating at the Solution Train level, leverage the Solution Train to manage dependencies across ARTs. The Solution Train provides a structured approach to coordinating complex solutions involving multiple ARTs.
  • Program Kanban: Use the Program Kanban system to visualize the flow of features and manage dependencies across teams. This helps in tracking the progress of work items that have cross-team dependencies and ensures timely communication and resolution.

By implementing these strategies, organizations can navigate the complexities of dependencies within the SAFe framework more effectively. Visualization and mapping, along with strong cross-team communication and proactive planning during PI Planning sessions, are key to managing dependencies successfully. Additionally, adjusting plans to account for changes and leveraging SAFe tools and artifacts can help mitigate the impact of dependencies on project timelines and delivery.

Ensuring Timely Deliveries Across ARTs and Teams

Ensuring timely deliveries across Agile Release Trains (ARTs) and teams is a critical challenge within the Scaled Agile Framework (SAFe), especially when navigating complex dependencies. Timely delivery is essential for maintaining project momentum and achieving the strategic objectives set forth by the organization. Here are strategies and practices that can help ensure that deliveries across ARTs and teams are managed efficiently and effectively.

Integration and Coordination

  • Cross-ART Coordination: Establish regular coordination meetings between ARTs to discuss progress, dependencies, and any impediments to delivery. This helps in identifying potential delays early and facilitates joint problem-solving.
  • Integrated Increments: Encourage the development of integrated increments where possible, allowing for early testing and feedback on how different components work together, thereby reducing integration risks at later stages.

Continuous Integration and Deployment (CI/CD)

  • Automated Testing: Implement automated testing to quickly identify and address defects, ensuring that code quality does not become a bottleneck for delivery.
  • Deployment Pipelines: Develop CI/CD pipelines to automate the build, test, and deployment processes. This not only speeds up the delivery process but also reduces the risk of human error.

Adjusting for Changes and Risks

  • Dynamic Replanning: Be prepared to dynamically replan and reprioritize work within the PI based on progress and any new dependencies or risks that emerge. This flexibility is key to responding to changes without significantly impacting delivery timelines.
  • Risk-Based Dependency Management: Prioritize dependencies based on their risk to the delivery timeline and allocate additional resources or attention to mitigating these risks proactively.

Leveraging SAFe Tools and Artifacts

  • Program and Solution Kanbans: Use Program and Solution Kanbans to visualize work in progress and monitor the flow of features and capabilities across ARTs and teams. This visibility supports proactive management of work items that are critical to timely delivery.
  • Inspect and Adapt Workshops: Utilize the Inspect and Adapt (I&A) workshop at the end of each PI to review what went well and what didn’t, specifically in terms of delivery timelines. Use these insights to improve processes for the next PI.

Building a Culture of Accountability

  • Clear Responsibilities: Ensure that each team member and team understands their responsibilities in delivering their components on time. Clear roles and responsibilities help in fostering a sense of ownership and accountability.
  • Celebrating Successes: Recognize and celebrate on-time deliveries and successful resolutions of dependencies. This not only boosts morale but also reinforces the importance of timely delivery within the organization.

Ensuring timely deliveries in a SAFe environment, particularly across multiple ARTs and teams, requires a concerted effort to coordinate, communicate, and adapt to emerging challenges. By implementing robust CI/CD practices, maintaining flexibility in planning, and fostering a culture of accountability and collaboration, organizations can significantly improve their ability to deliver on time, even in the face of complex dependencies.

Leveraging SAFe Tools and Artifacts

In the Scaled Agile Framework (SAFe), several tools and artifacts are specifically designed to facilitate the management of dependencies and coordination of deliveries across Agile Release Trains (ARTs) and teams. Effective use of these tools and artifacts can significantly enhance an organization’s ability to navigate the complexities of SAFe, ensuring that dependencies are managed proactively and deliveries are made on time. Here’s a closer look at some of these key tools and artifacts and how they can be leveraged:

Program and Solution Kanbans

  • Purpose: These Kanbans provide visibility into the flow of features and capabilities from ideation through to implementation, highlighting where items are in the process and any potential bottlenecks.
  • Application: Teams can use Program and Solution Kanbans to track the progress of work items that have dependencies across ARTs, facilitating early identification and resolution of delivery risks.

Program Boards

  • Purpose: Program boards visually map out the features planned for the upcoming Program Increment (PI) across all teams in an ART, including the dependencies between these features.
  • Application: By clearly displaying feature dependencies, program boards help teams anticipate and address potential issues before they impact delivery schedules.

Dependency Maps

  • Purpose: Dependency maps offer a focused view of the dependencies between teams and ARTs, making it easier to identify and manage interdependencies.
  • Application: Regularly updating and reviewing dependency maps during ART sync meetings or Scrum of Scrums helps teams stay aligned and collaboratively address dependency-related challenges.

PI Objectives and ROAM Boards

  • Purpose: PI Objectives provide a summary of what each team aims to achieve in the coming PI, including any risks identified. The ROAM board (Resolved, Owned, Accepted, Mitigated) is used to track and manage these risks.
  • Application: Clearly defined PI Objectives, along with active risk management using the ROAM board, ensure that all teams are aligned on their goals and are proactively addressing any obstacles to delivery.

Inspect and Adapt (I&A) Workshops

  • Purpose: I&A workshops are held at the end of each PI to reflect on what went well, what didn’t, and how processes can be improved.
  • Application: These workshops provide an opportunity to assess how well dependencies were managed and deliveries coordinated, offering insights into process improvements for future PIs.

Continuous Integration and Continuous Deployment (CI/CD) Tools

  • Purpose: CI/CD tools automate the build, test, and deployment processes, enabling faster and more reliable delivery of software components.
  • Application: Implementing CI/CD practices helps minimize the delays often associated with manual integration and deployment processes, facilitating smoother and more timely deliveries across ARTs and teams.

Leveraging these SAFe tools and artifacts requires not only familiarity with their functions and applications but also a commitment to regular use and review. By integrating these tools into their regular workflow, teams and ARTs can improve their coordination, manage dependencies more effectively, and ensure that their contributions are aligned with the broader organizational goals.

Case Studies: Overcoming Dependency Challenges in SAFe

Exploring real-world examples offers invaluable insights into how organizations navigate the complexities of dependencies and deliveries within the Scaled Agile Framework (SAFe). These case studies highlight the practical application of strategies and tools discussed earlier, demonstrating their impact on facilitating smoother operations across Agile Release Trains (ARTs) and teams.

Case Study 1: Financial Services Organization

Challenge: A large financial services organization faced significant delays in feature delivery due to unresolved dependencies between its multiple ARTs, impacting market responsiveness and customer satisfaction.

Solution: The organization implemented a comprehensive dependency mapping process during PI planning sessions, utilizing program boards and ROAM boards to identify and address dependencies early. They also established a dedicated cross-ART coordination team responsible for managing these dependencies throughout the PI.

Outcome: This proactive approach to dependency management led to a 30% reduction in delivery delays within the first two PIs of implementation. The organization saw improved alignment across ARTs, resulting in faster time-to-market for new features and enhanced customer satisfaction.

Case Study 2: Global Technology Company

Challenge: A global technology company struggled with coordinating deliveries across its distributed teams, leading to integration issues and missed deadlines.

Solution: The company leveraged Continuous Integration and Continuous Deployment (CI/CD) tools to automate testing and deployment processes, minimizing manual handoffs and reducing integration errors. They also utilized solution Kanbans to improve visibility into the flow of work across teams and ARTs.

Outcome: The adoption of CI/CD practices and enhanced visibility through solution Kanbans led to a 40% improvement in on-time deliveries. The teams experienced fewer integration issues, allowing for more predictable release schedules and better product quality.

Case Study 3: Healthcare Solutions Provider

Challenge: A healthcare solutions provider encountered difficulties in maintaining the pace of innovation due to complex technical dependencies across its ARTs.

Solution: The organization adopted a strategy of early dependency identification and visualization using dependency maps and program boards during PI planning. Additionally, they introduced regular cross-ART sync meetings facilitated by Release Train Engineers (RTEs) to proactively manage and resolve dependencies.

Outcome: This approach resulted in a more dynamic and responsive strategy for managing technical dependencies, enabling the organization to accelerate its pace of innovation. By the end of the year, the provider had successfully launched several key products ahead of schedule, with improved cross-team collaboration and reduced dependency-related blockers.

Key Takeaways

These case studies underscore the importance of a strategic approach to managing dependencies and coordinating deliveries in a SAFe environment. By leveraging tools like program boards, ROAM boards, and CI/CD practices, along with fostering strong communication and coordination across ARTs, organizations can overcome the challenges posed by dependencies, ensuring more efficient and timely project execution.


Successfully navigating the complexities of dependencies and deliveries within the Scaled Agile Framework (SAFe) is crucial for organizations aiming to achieve Agile at scale. The challenges of coordinating multiple Agile Release Trains (ARTs) and teams, while managing interdependencies and ensuring timely deliveries, demand a strategic and proactive approach. As illustrated through practical strategies and real-world case studies, the effective management of these aspects is not only possible but essential for maximizing the benefits of SAFe implementation.

Key to overcoming these challenges is the early identification and meticulous management of dependencies, utilizing SAFe tools and artifacts like program boards, dependency maps, and ROAM boards. Additionally, fostering open communication and collaboration across teams and ARTs, supported by regular sync meetings and the strategic use of CI/CD practices, can significantly enhance the flow of deliveries.

The case studies highlighted in this article underscore the positive impact that a structured approach to dependencies and deliveries can have on an organization’s Agile journey. By adopting these practices, teams can improve alignment, reduce delays, and accelerate value delivery to customers.

In conclusion, mastering the management of dependencies and deliveries in a SAFe environment is a continuous journey of learning and adaptation. Organizations that commit to refining these processes, leveraging the right tools, and fostering a culture of collaboration and transparency will be well-positioned to navigate the complexities of SAFe, realizing its full potential for their Agile initiatives.

As the landscape of Agile and SAFe continues to evolve, so too will the strategies and best practices for managing dependencies and deliveries. Staying informed, adaptable, and proactive in addressing these challenges will ensure organizations can thrive in an increasingly complex and dynamic project environment.